Archive for the ‘Learning Islam’ Category

Physically, Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 16,000 of large and small islands, whether inhabited or not, and the water almost 2 million square miles. In socio-cultural, Indonesia consists of various races, languages, customs, and religion. All of that shows how plural Indonesia is.

Official data from 2002-2003 said, 88 percent of Indonesia’s population is Muslim, 6 percent Protestant, 3 percent Catholic, 2 percent Hindu, 1 percent Buddhist, and the rest is other faiths. “Unofficial” data mentions that 80 percent of population is Muslim and Protestant/Catholic is 15 percent. Meanwhile, annual growth of Protestants/Catholics in Indonesia is 2.5 percent and Muslim is 1.9 percent.

It is clear that the majority of Indonesia’s population is Muslim. But in the Muslim community there is a complex diversity. Shia-Sunni dichotomy in Indonesia is not as sharp as in other Muslim countries. Still, there are a variety of different streams, though essentially the same. Diversity is institutionalized in various organizations. Two of the largest are Muhammadiyah (composed of around 30 million followers) and NU (about 40 million followers).

In addition to religious diversity, ethnic variation has also become important in Indonesia. Although Indonesia’s ethnic majority are “native” (the top three are Java 42 percent, Sunda 15 percent and Malay 3.5 percent), but due to the dominance of economic, ethnic minorities, Chinese, became very important in the mosaic of Indonesia. Although there were only about 3 percent, 80 percent ethnic Chinese dominate the personal assets of the Indonesian economy.

Islam considers diversity

The concept of plurality or diversity is sunnatullah. God created man and nature with different conditions so that we can know and complement each other.

1. Islam: religion of equality.

The essence of Islam is monotheism, in which all human beings are created by one God, that all men are equal and honored, regardless of skin color, social class, ethnicity, and race.

“And indeed We have honored the children of Adam …” (17:70)

“O mankind, We created you from a male and a female and made you peoples nation and tribes that you may know each other. Verily the noblest among you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you. Surely Allah is Knower, Aware. “(49:13)

2. Islam considers human life sacred.

“Therefore, we set (a law) for the Children of Israel that whoever kills a human being, not because people (kill) someone else, or for spreading mischief in the land, would be as if he slew the man entirely. And if any one saved a life, it is as if he saved the life of the whole people … ” (5:32)

3. Justice and legal equality.

Islam teaches Muslims to resolve all issues fairly, regardless of the consequences. In the eyes of the law and justice there is no difference between Muslims and non-Muslims.

“Verily, Allah tells you to deliver the message to those who deserve it, and (telling you) if the laws set among men so that you establish a fair …” (4:58)

“Verily, Allah tells (you) to be fair and do good, giving to kinsfolk, and God forbid of indecency, munkar and hostility. He teaches you that ye may take heed. ” (16:90)

“O you who believe, be ye really upholders of justice, bearing witness for Allah even as against yourselves, or your parents and relatives. If he is rich or poor, Allah knows better kemaslahatannya. Do not follow your own desires and deviate from the truth. And if ye distort (words) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. ” (4:135)

“O you who believe, let you become the people who always uphold the (truth) for Allah, bearing witness with justice. And do not ever something of the hatred towards, encouraging you to do injustice. Be fair, as fair it is closer to piety. And fear Allah, surely Allah is Aware of what you do. ” (5:8)

4. There is no compulsion in religion.

Islam insists that there is no compulsion in religion, and people of different faiths are forbidden to be forced to convert to Islam. The sharp sword of Islam is for the aggressor, those who want to destroy Islam and Muslims, and those who do mischief on earth.

“There is no compulsion to (enter) the religion (Islam); actually has clearly the right rather than the wrong path. Therefore whoever reneges to Evil and believes in Allah, then indeed he has adhered to a very strong rope knots that will never break. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things. ” (2:256)

“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, (but) do not transgress limits, for Allah loveth not transgressors.” (2:190)

“And fight them until there is no more fitnah and (thus) compliance is solely for Allah. If they desist (from hostile to you), then there is no enmity (again), except to people who do wrong. ” (2:193)

“And the people who defend themselves after abused, there is no sin on them. The blame is on those who act wrongfully towards humans and beyond the earth without right. They got a painful punishment. ” (42:41-42)

5. Good goal to be achieved in a good way

“And not equal good and evil. Repel (evil) with a better way, then all of a sudden people among you there was enmity between him and seems to have a very loyal friend. ” (41:34)

“Call upon (people) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good lessons and deny them in a good way ….” (16:125)

“And do not curse the gods they worship besides Allah, lest they should abuse Allah exceeding the limits of knowledge. Thus have We made every people their deeds. Then they return to their Lord, and He told them what they were doing before. ” (6:108)

“Constantinople would fall into the hands of Islam. Leaders who conquer it, is the best of leaders and the troops under his command is the best of troops.” (Narrated by Ahmad bin Hanbal)

Divination of the Prophet Muhammad uttered when the Battle of the Trench actually became reality on Tuesday, Jumada al-Ula 20, 857 H or May 29, 1453. Constantinople was previously controlled by the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) considered as the safest and the most secure because it has the strongest fortress in the world. But apparently, the world’s strongest city conquered by troops under the command of a man named Sultan Muhammad Khan. Since then, Muhammad Khan was given the title of Al Fatih (the Liberator) and is known in the West as Mehmed the Conqueror.

Muhammad Al Fatih

Muhammad Al Fatih (1431 – 1481 AD), the son of Sultan Murad II, sultan who ruled the Ottoman Empire since the year 1451 AD. As a child, Muhammad Al Fatih was spoiled and lazy learning. But Muhammad Al Fatih began seriously studied after his father brought some teachers such as Shaykh Ahmad ibn Ismail al-Kurani, Sheikh Aag Syamsudin, and others. From them, Muhammad Al Fatih studied religion, language, skills, physical geography, astronomy, and history. Muhammad Al Fatih grew into someone who was an expert at war and smart riding, an expert in the field of science and mathematics, and master 6 languages ​​since the age of 21. Muhammad Al-Fatih was intelligent young man who had the willpower to reach his goal, especially for conquering Constantinople as the words of the Prophet Muhammad since he was 12 years old.

The success of Muhammad Al Fatih conquered Constantinople was not coincidence. Muhammad Al Fatih was strengthening Ottoman military power by choosing and selecting troops ever since they were little. A special team was ordered to spread throughout Turkey and the surrounding area to search for the children of the most intelligent, the most diligent of worship, and the most powerful physique. Then the parents are given the offer that their children can be guided in the early age. Once agreed, the chosen children were given coaching of religion, science, and military, as their daily needs borne by the state. So, it made sense why no single soldier had ever left prayers since baligh, even half of them had never left the tahajud prayer since baligh.

Muhammad Al Fatih himself was mentioned never leaving tahajud and rawatib prayers since baligh until his death. Narrated in the first prayer that will be held after the conquest, Muhammad Al Fatih said: “Those who feel never masbuq in prayer please be our prayer leader.” Long awaited, there was no one going forward. Then steadily Muhammad Al Fatih owned the former priest in the church in Constantinople.

Maybe that’s the secret of success of Muhammad Al Fatih in realizing its goals and ideals of Islam, not physical strength, but the closeness to Allah SWT. The secret that he distributed to troops by keeping the obligatory prayers, tahajud prayers and rawatib prayers. In the age of 22, Muhammad Al Fatih conquered the city which the Prophet promised eight centuries earlier. Once captured, the city of Constantinople was replaced with the name Islambul (city of Islam), and now called Istanbul (replaced by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk).

Many comrades even opponents admired the leadership of Muhammad Al Fatih and strategies wars that preceded that era. He played a major role in the expansion of Islamic territory, setting the lands, making improvements in the economic, educational, and very concerned about the welfare of its people. In his leadership, the center of government Islambul was being very beautiful, advanced, and economically successful. Muhammad Al Fatih, the person who had tremendous energy and became a noble. So what about us? What achievements that we are already obtained in our growing age?

Ever heard the name of Ibn Sina? Or Al-Khwarizmi? They are one of many Muslim scholars who have contributed to world civilization. Want to know them more closely? Here is a brief story of the people of the great Islamic past.

  1. Ibn Sina, better known as Avicenna among western people, was a philosopher, scientist, physician, and also a prolific writer in the 10th century. He recorded and described the anatomy of the human body fully for the first time. His work which is very well known is the “Qanun fi Thib” or “The Canon of Medicine” which is a reference in the field of medicine for centuries. Because of that, he is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the World Medical Man. Not only in the field of medicine, Ibn Sina is also known as an expert in the science of religion, mathematics, logic, physics, geometry, astronomy, metaphysics. Subhanallah …
  2. Abbas ibn Firnas, was the first to make the construction of airplanes and flying. In the 9th century, he designed a device and the wing shape as a bird costume. In a famous experiment in Cordoba, Spain, Firnas was flying high for some time before falling to the ground and broke his spine. The design is made apparently inspired the Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci, hundreds of years later.
  3. Al-Khwarizmi, Muslim mathematician who is better known by western people as Algorism. Apparently, the word “algorithm” is taken from the name, because it was he who invented the concept of the algorithm. He is also the inventor of several branches of mathematics known as an astronomer and geographer. Algebraic theory is also work of Al-Khwarizmi. Name ‘algebra’ is taken from his book “Al-Jabr Wa Al Muqabilah”. His other famous works is “Umar Khayam”, which has brought the number of mathematics to Europe via Spain. Not enough here, Al-Khwarizmi also developed a table that contains the details of the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, and cotangent, and the concept of differentiation. So it turns out, mathematical theories that we have been learned so far is his contribution. Unbelievable …
  4. Ibn Al-Haitham, is a scientist who proved that humans see objects from the reflection of the light and into the eye, ignoring the theory of Euclid and Ptolemy that the light generated from within the eye itself. Among western people, he is known as Alhazen. He is an Islamic scholar who is an expert in the field of science, astronomy, mathematic, geometry, medicine, and philosophy. He also did a lot of investigation into the light, and has given inspiration to western scientists like Boger, Bacon, and Kepler in creating the microscope and telescope. Some of the books about the light that written by him has been translated into English, including “Light” and “On Twilight Phenomena”. Many studies discuss the dusk and halos around the moon and the sun and shadow, and the eclipse. He had found the principle of unified content of air before a scientist named Tricella knew about it 500 years later. He also had found the pull of gravity before Isaac Newton knew about it.

Subhanallah … those are just some of the great Muslim scientists, whose work is still used today. They lived, they also experienced youth like us, but they left remarkable deeds in their life. What about us?

Prayers are routine for every Muslim in the world, because prayer is obligatory worship which God commanded to be done by a Muslim. Call to prayer (adzan) marks the entry time of prayer and calls us to pray immediately.

Glad it was great that we can always pray on time, especially if the prayer in congregation in the mosque. In addition we will be rewarded 27 times more important than praying alone in the house, we can also foster achievement in performing prayers. Do you know? It turns out that the first time the charity will be judged later in the day of reckoning is prayers. As the Prophet Muhammad said in a hadith, “The first slaves brought to account of deeds on the Day of Judgment is the prayer!!! If someone’s prayer is good, he was lucky and survived. But if his prayer is lacking, he lost.”

Prayers on time, including the practice of the most loved by Allah. As narrated by Abdullah bin Mas’ud ra to Sa’ad bin Iyas. He said, “I once asked the Prophet, “Charity is the most beloved of Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla?” He replied, “Prayer in time” then I said, ‘Then what?’. He said, “Dutiful to both parents”. Then I said, ‘Then what?’. He replied, “Jihad in the way of Allah” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).

Wow, too bad if we do not pray on time, especially if we do not do the prayer. Hope not… Let’s race to pray immediately if adzan is coming, so we include those who are loved by Allah swt. Who wants?!

Segala puji bagi Allah yang menjadikan Ramadhan sebagai bulan diturunkannya Al-Qur’an, di mana di dalamnya terdapat malam yang lebih baik dari seribu bulan dan amalan dilipatgandakan pahalanya. Shalawat dan salam semoga senantiasa tercurahkan kepada manusia terbaik sepanjang masa, Nabi Muhammad Saw, sahabat, keluarga dan pengikutnya hingga akhir zaman.

Waktu berjalan tanpa terasa begitu cepat. Bulan Ramadhan yang mulia sudah berakhir tanpa bisa ditunda sedetikpun. Bulan yang penuh keberkahan dan ampunan sudah berlalu meninggalkan kita hingga tiba datangnya kembali di tahun depan. Sementara kita tidak pernah mengetahui apakah kita masih bisa menjumpai Ramadhan berikutnya bersama dengan orang-orang dan keluarga yang kita cintai? Dan apakah kita masih diberikan kesempatan untuk beribadah dan beramal secara maksimal di bulan nan mulia lagi?

Bulan Ramadhan merupakan bulan terbaik di antara semua bulan di sepanjang tahun. Banyak dari kita yang menyambut kedatangan bulan Ramadhan dengan gegap gempita. Ketika Ramadhan tiba, beramai-ramai kita memakmurkan masjid untuk melakukan ibadah dan bersemangat meningkatkan kuantitas amalan sebanyak-banyaknya. Bagaimana tidak? Tentu tidak ada yang ingin melewatkan kesempatan besar untuk mendapatkan pahala yang berlipat ganda dan ampunan yang terbuka lebar. Pertanyaan yang muncul adalah apakah ibadah kita akan tetap luar biasa ketika Ramadhan sudah tidak di depan mata?

Mungkin lebih mudah bagi kita untuk melakukan ibadah di bulan Ramadhan dengan mayoritas orang-orang di sekitar kita melakukan hal yang sama. Misalnya ketika kita berpuasa, orang-orang di sekeliling kita juga berpuasa, tersedia kesempatan sholat tarawih berjamaah setiap malam di masjid, dan sebagainya. Suasana kebersamaan tersebut seakan-akan menguatkan niat untuk beramal sebanyak mungkin. Namun ketika Ramadhan sudah usai, ketika tidak ada lagi jamaah tarawih di masjid, ketika tidak setiap orang melakukan ibadah puasa, kita akan tetap dengan mudah beramal sebagaimana amalan di bulan Ramadhan?

Di situlah yang menjadi ujian sebenarnya bagi seorang mukmin. Yang menjadi ujian adalah bukan pada saat menjalankan ibadah di bulan Ramadhan, namun justru terletak pada masa-masa setelah Ramadhan. Bulan Ramadhan hanya sebagai sarana latihan, pemanasan bagi kita, modal untuk melakukan amalan-amalan di bulan lainnya. Ujiannya adalah bagaimana kita bisa beribadah dengan istiqomah di bulan-bulan berikutnya sebagaimana yang kita lakukan di bulan Ramadhan. Itulah ujian bagi orang-orang yang bertakwa.

Beberapa amalan yang harus kita lanjutkan setelah Ramadhan usai, baik yang wajib maupun sunnah, antara lain:

  1. Selalu menjaga sholat fardhu berjamaah

Selama bulan Ramadhan, kita sudah membiasakan diri untuk dekat dengan masjid. Setiap adzan dikumandangkan, kita melangkahkan kaki menuju masjid untuk melaksanakan sholat secara berjamaah. Ketika Ramadhan berakhir, energi besar itu harus dijaga hingga datang bulan Ramadhan berikutnya. Jika semangat itu masih ada, kita akan dengan mudah melaksanakan sholat berjamaah, apalagi pahala sholat berjamaah dilipatgandakan daripada sholat sendirian. Dari Abdullah bin Umar bahwa Nabi bersabda: “Shalat berjamaah lebih baik dari shalat sendirian dua puluh derajat.” Dan dalam satu riwayat: “Dua puluh lima derajat.” (Muttafaqun ‘alaih).[1] Dan dalam hadits yang lain Rasulullah saw bersabda: “Barangsiapa yang berwudhu di rumahnya, kemudian berjalan menuju salah satu rumah Allah (masjid), untuk menunaikan salah satu kewajiban Allah, niscaya salah satu langkahnya menggugurkan dosa dan yang lain meninggikan derajat.” (HR. Muslim no. 666)

  1. Melaksanakan sholat-sholat sunnah

Tarbiyah yang sangat berharga dari madrasah Ramadhan salah satunya adalah kebiasaan memperbanyak ibadah sholat-sholat sunnah seperti tarawih, witir, dan tahajud. Setelah Ramadhan berlalu, hendaknya semangat yang kita peroleh tidak ikut berlalu. Berikut keutamaan dari sholat sunnah tersebut:

– Sunnah rawatib

“Tidak ada seorang hamba yang melaksanakan shalat karena Allah setiap hari sebanyak dua belas rekaat selain yang fardhu, kecuali Allah membangun untuknya satu rumah di surga, atau melainkan dibangun untuknya satu rumah di surga.” (HR. Muslim no. 728)

– Sholat tahajud

 “Shalat yang paling utama setelah shalat fardhu adalah shalat di tengah malam.” (HR. Muslim no. 1163)

– Sholat witir

Dari Abu Hurairah ia berkata, “Kekasihku (Rasulullah) berpesan kepadaku dengan tiga perkara, aku tidak akan meninggalkannya hingga mati: puasa tiga hari setiap bulan, shalat Dhuha dan tidur setelah shalat witir.” (Muttafaqun ‘alaih)[2]

  1. Membaca Al-Qur’an

Dari Abu Umamah al-Bahili, Rasulullah bersabda: “Bacalah al-Qur`an, maka sesungguhnya ia akan datang pada hari kiamat memberikan syafaat kepada ahlinya.” (HR. Muslim no. 804)

Mungkin sebagian besar dari kita sudah berhasil mengkhatamkan Al-Qur’an minimal sebanyak satu kali atau paling tidak mampu membaca sekian juz selama bulan Ramadhan. Akankah kebiasaan membaca Al-Qur’an selama bulan Ramadhan berlalu begitu saja? Semoga tidak. Jika dalam sehari kita bisa membaca buku, koran, majalah atau bacaan lainnya, maka kita juga bisa mengkhususkan waktu untuk membaca Al-Qur’an.

  1. Melaksanakan puasa-puasa sunnah

Kita harus bersyukur kepada Allah karena telah mengijinkan kita untuk melakukan ibadah puasa sebulan penuh selama Ramadhan. Setelah Ramadhan berlalu meninggalkan kita, hendaknya kita tidak meninggalkan ibadah puasa sunnah yang dianjurkan di bulan selain Ramadhan. Puasa sunnah yang dimaksud antara lain puasa enam hari bulan Syawal, puasa hari Arafah (hari ke-9 di bulan Dzulhijjah), puasa hari ‘Asyura (tanggal 10 bulan Muharram), puasa hari Senin dan Kamis, dan puasa tiga hari setiap bulan pada tanggal 13, 14, dan 15.

  1. Taubat dan istighfar kepada Allah

Bulan Ramadhan adalah bulan penuh ampunan di mana kita pasti telah memohon ampun kepada Allah atas segala dosa dan kesalahan yang pernah kita lakukan semasa hidup. Namun ketika Ramadhan berakhir, bukan berarti kita berhenti meminta ampun dan bertaubat kepada Allah Swt. Justru kita dianjurkan untuk senantiasa memohon ampunan dan terus bertaubat kepada Allah. Dalam firman Allah, “Dan bertaubatlah kepada Allah, hai orang-orang yang beriman supaya kamu beruntung.” (QS. An-Nuur: 31).

Semoga dengan berakhirnya Ramadhan tidak berakhir pula semangat yang kita peroleh dari madrasah Ramadhan untuk senantiasa memaksimalkan diri dalam beramal sholih, menuju pribadi yang benar-benar bertakwa.


[1] HR. al-Bukhari no. 645 dan 646, ini adalah lafazhnya, dan Muslim no. 650 dan 649

[2] HR. al-Bukhari no. 1178, ini adalah lafazhnya, dan Muslim no. 721